CVE-2021–27306: Access an authenticated route on Kong API Gateway
This vulnerability allows access to an authenticated route through an unauthenticated route on services that use the Kong API Gateway prior to 22.214.171.124 version, that use the JWT plugin to secure the routes and that have at least one unauthenticated route.
In Kong, we configure the routes of the APIs that will be possible to be accessed and we can add plugins in these routes. By default, subroutes will inherit the configurations of the configured base route plugins. For example, if the route /api/v1/customers is configured to be authenticated, then the route /api/v1/customers/admin will also be authenticated.
So, for example, if I have a Kong API Gateway sending traffic directly to an application, and an unauthenticated /public route and an authenticated /api/v1/customers route configured in Kong, what happens if I access the /public/../api/v1/customers route? Kong inherit the /public route rules and, as this route is not authenticated, it does not check if there is a JWT token and it forwards this request to the application. In this point, there is a vulnerability, but it is necessary one more thing to exploit it: Kong will send the request for the /public/../api/v1/customers route to the application, but there is no such API implemented in the application. Therefore, for this flaw to be successfully exploited, there must be a service (Web Service, Reverse Proxy, Load Balance, …) between Kong and the application that will normalize the route, that is, that will transform the route /public/../api/v1/customers to route /api/v1/customers before sending to the application.
First, I only configured the Kong API Gateway by sending traffic directly to the application: Kong → Application (NodeJs). In the image below, you can see what containers are running: kong-ee is the Kong API Gateway and nodejs is the application.
I configure an unauthenticated route (/public) and an authenticated route (/api/v1/customers), as the image below. By default, curl normalizes the path before making the request, so I need to use the path-as-is parameter to prevent it from normalizing.
Now, if I call the /public/../api/v1/customers route, I will see that the Unauthorized message is not returned, but instead, a message that there is no requested route is returned, given by the application, that is, Kong forwarded this request to the application without checking authentication and the application gave an error, because the /public/../api/v1/customers route is not implemented in it.
This is the requests flow:
As stated above, it is necessary that there is a service (Web Service, Reverse Proxy, Load Balance, …) that normalizes this path before sending the request to the application. So, I configured Nginx as a reverse proxy and, thus, I got the following scheme: Kong → Nginx → Application (Nodejs). In the image below, you can see that I add one more container: docknginx which is the reverse proxy.
As I only configured the traffic from Kong to Nginx and from Nginx to the application, then requests to Kong remain the same.
However, when I called the /public/../api/v1/customers route, I was able to access the authenticated route (/api/v1/customers) without needing an authentication.
The final requests flow is like this:
Kong released an update to this vulnerability in 126.96.36.199 version: https://docs.konghq.com/enterprise/changelog/#core-1. Now, Kong API Gateway always normalizing the incoming request’s URI before matching against the Router.